What is penicillin? I'm afraid no one else in the world knows better than the stone bear.
Well, in addition to the stone bear, people like Jorah krulu and Jean Agust also know something. But even Agust, who cultivated and purified penicillin, is not really clear about the great role of penicillin.
If in later generations, even children in junior high school know what penicillin is for, it is a very effective anti-inflammatory drug. In later generations, it is antibiotics.
However, penicillin is susceptible to allergies - about a quarter of people who use penicillin will have allergic reactions, and penicillin is not a broad-spectrum antibiotic, so penicillin was rarely used in clinical practice at the time of stone bear crossing.
But in this era, penicillin is the absolute medicine!
At present, the work of grain, transportation, canal, military and education is vigorously promoted in the tribe. Of course, in addition to these important work, the medical work of stone bear has not been left behind at all.
Life, old age and death are things that everyone experiences. Life, old age and death can't be controlled by stone bears. No one in the world can control a person's life, old age and death. However, disease can be well controlled if there are enough medical means and drugs.
Why is life expectancy so short in this era? Very simply, it is caused by the low level of medical care.
People in this era will also get sick, but the same disease, such as a cold, may be cured by taking a few antibiotics in the future. But in this age, in this age without any antibiotics, colds can kill people.
For example, the Spanish pandemic occurred between 1918 and 1919. At that time, there were no antibiotics. As a result, 500 million people in the world were infected with this influenza virus, accounting for 29% of the global population at that time.
And how many people died from that flu? Nearly 40 million people in the world!
It was because there were no antibiotics at that time that a flu caused so many deaths.
There is also the white plague of tuberculosis. In the era of no antibiotics, once infected with this white plague, almost no one can survive.
In those days, tuberculosis was a disease that people even talked about more than cancer and AIDS.
In addition, the reason why so many people died in World War I was also due to the lack of antibiotics.
About 10 million people died during World War I, but at least more than half of them were not killed on the spot. According to statistics, during the first World War, there were more than 9 million wounded people. As a result, because there were no antibiotics, about 6 million of them died of infection. Only 3 million of them survived
It can be seen how much help antibiotics have for the improvement of human life expectancy.
In this era, the average life expectancy of North American Indians is less than 30 years old. One of the major reasons is because of disease. The other is that in the war, many wounded people died because they could not avoid infection.
Let alone in the new world of North America, the same is true in Europe, and the same is true all over the world - the average life span of human beings in the world is only 31 years old!
Disease and wound infection are the greatest enemies of mankind in this era!
In the original historical time and space, after penicillin was extracted as the first antibiotic in the world, the two experts who extracted penicillin even won the Nobel Prize in medicine for penicillin.
It was because penicillin was discovered and purified that all kinds of other antibiotics came into being, such as streptomycin, erythromycin, spiramycin, cephalosporin, vanguard and so on
It is with these antibiotics that human life expectancy has been greatly improved!
Before penicillin was purified, the average life expectancy in developed countries was less than 40 years. But in the 21st century, the average life expectancy in these developed countries has exceeded 71 years!
Thus, the role of antibiotics is so huge.
Others don't know what effect antibiotics have, but stone bear knows! He knows more about the position of penicillin in antibiotics.
It's no exaggeration to say that if antibiotics are the key to human life expectancy, then penicillin is the originator of antibiotics!
That's why stone bear called Agust out alone, and equipped him with the best personnel and equipment that Yanhuang tribe can provide, so that he can develop penicillin.
It's not difficult to find penicillin. Even in this era, I'm afraid everyone has seen penicillin or a variety of penicillin.
Food that has been stored at home for a long time, or food that has not been found under the table for many days, usually grows hairy and moldy, and there is penicillin in it.
Penicillin can be found everywhere, but how to cultivate and purify it is not what ordinary people can do.
In the original historical time and space, British bacteriologist Alexander Fleming made the greatest discovery in the history of human medicine because of an unintentional mistake, and his mistake was also called "the greatest mistake in the history of medicine" by later generations.
At that time, Alexander Fleming was not studying penicillin, he was studying Staphylococcus.
As a result, he went out on holiday after a job of cultivating Staphylococcus. When he came back, he suddenly found that his plate for cultivating Staphylococcus had grown a lot of blue gray mold because he forgot to clean it.
In the original culture dish of Staphylococcus, cyan gray mold grew because of forgetting to clean, which is a kind of mold pollution. Although the situation is not serious, it is actually a kind of work error for medical experiments.
But Fleming found that around the cyan gray mold, the Staphylococcus that should have grown the same disappeared, forming a sterile circle in the Petri dish - a phenomenon later known as the "bacteriostatic circle".
Fleming immediately realized that this was because the bluish gray mold could secrete a substance that killed or prevented the growth of Staphylococcus. According to the color of the mold, he called the substance penicillin.
Penicillin has been on the stage of human medical history since then!
But at that time, Fleming also found that the bactericidal substance was not in the mold itself, but in the culture medium. But when he tried to separate the substance from the solution, he found that it was very unstable. It would decompose rapidly in alkaline or high temperature environment, and it would be inactivated quickly even at room temperature. So Fleming never succeeded in isolating penicillin, he could only cultivate Penicillium strains from generation to generation.
Then Fleming wrote a paper on penicillin and published it in order to get help from others.
Unfortunately, his paper did not get the attention of others at that time.